Idukki is centrally located district of Kerala. This is the second largest district of Kerala. About 50% of the land area of this district is reserve forest. Idukki is one among the two districts in Kerala which have no rail connectivity. Main Taluks are Devikulam, Udumpanchila , Peerumedu and Thodupuzha. Thodupuzha is the only municipality in this district. The district comprises of 8 Block Panchayaths and 51 Grama Panchayaths. The district is known for the hydro electro projects located there. 66% of the domestic electricity requirements of the state is generated by these hydro electric projects. The largest arch dam in India, Idukki Arch dam is here. This is the second highest dam in India. This also the biggest hydro electric project in Kerala. The places of tourist importance is the main peculiarity of the district.
Thrissur district is on North. Coimbatore and Madhura Districts of Tamil Nadu on East, Ernakulam District to the West and Pathanamthitta District on South are the boundaries of the district.
Devikulam , Udumpanchola and Peerumedu talukas which were in Kottayam District ,Thodupuzha taluk excepting Manjallore and Kallorkkadu from Ernakulam, are joined together and formed the new district of Idukki on 26th of January 1972. In the beginning Kottayam was the district head quarters. From there it was shifted to Painavu of Thodupuzha taluks in 1976. The largest arch dam of Idukki is built constructed joining the two hills “Kuravan and Kurathi”. The name ‘Idukki’ is formed from the malayalam word “Idukku”.
The district is geographically different from the other district of Kerala except Vayanadu. 97% of the land is covered by forests and hills.Low lying land is comparatively nil.50%of the land is under forest.There are 14 hills in the district which are above the sea level by more that 2000 mts. Anamudi ,the highest peak to the south of Himalayas is situated here in Munnar Panachayath. Because of the hilly areas most of the places are not suitable for the traditional agriculture. But these areas are most suited for spice cultivation. Iravimala, Kathumala, Chenthavara, Kumarickal, Karinkulam, Devikulam, Perumal, Gudur, Kabula, Devikulam, Anchanad, Karimala are the main mountains.
Rivers and Dams
Periyar, Thodupuzhayar,Kaliyar,are the main rivers flowing through the district. The river pamba is originating from this district Periyar is originating from Sivagiri south east of the district and flows through all the talukas of the district. There are so many dams constructed across the river Periyar. Mullaperiyar , Idukki and Lower Periyar are the major dams across the river Periyar. Eravikulam and Devikulam lake in Devikulam taluk and Ilaveezhapunchira of Thodupuzha taluk are nature made lakes.
Trade and Commerce
Agriculture is the main source of income. Dairy farming is also a source of income.
The district is known for spices. The climate and geography of the place is suited for cash crops. Tea, Coffee, Rubber, Cardamom, Pepper, Coconut are the major crops. In agri productions the district is second in the state.
Cattle and sheep are the main animals. The Diary farm at Mattupetti is a tourist spot too. This diary farm was formed for the better breeding of cattles and through which for the increased milk production.
Idukki is one among the beautiful places in the state. Wildlife parks, Hill Stations, Dams , farm tourism, Trekking, Elephant Safari are the main tourist attractions. Munnar Hills, Idukki dam, Thekkadi wild life reserve, Peerumeedu Vagamon are the major ttourist spots. Ramakkal medu, Rajappara, Anayirankal, Old Devikulam, Cheeyappara / Vaalra waterfalls, Thomman kuttu, Naaadukani View point, Parunthupaara, Anchuri, Kalyanathandu, Mattupetti, Kundala, Eco point, Top station, Chinnar Wild life reserve, Rajamala, etc are other main places. Farm tourism has recently gained importance. Munnar, Idukki and Thekkadi are known as the golden triangle of tourism.
Vagamon Kurisumala, Rajakumari Church, Pazhayaviduthi church, Thangal para , Pattumala church, Pallikkunnu church, Peermuhammed’s tomb are the main pilgrim centers.
Government Engineering college Painavu, M.G University College of engineering Muttam Thodupuzha, College of Engineering County Hills, Munnar Mar Basilius College of Engineering -Peerumedu